Urban structure and sustainable modes’ competitiveness in small and medium-sized Norwegian cities
Peer reviewed, Journal article
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This paper contributes novel empirical and theoretical knowledge on how built environment characteristics affect travel behaviour in small and medium-sized cities and how this differs from larger cities. The competitiveness of sustainable modes versus the private car tends to increase and commuting distances tend to decrease with proximity of dwellings and workplaces to the city centre, following similar patterns as in larger cities, although the tendencies are weaker. Car-usage tend to decrease with higher city-level densities. Relatively dense mixed-use zones outside the inner-city generate higher car shares and longer commutes compared with inner cities and in some cases also outer parts of cities. It is concluded that small and medium-sized cities aiming at improving the competitiveness of sustainable modes versus the private car can follow the same advice as larger cities–steering new urban development to central parts of cities and avoiding new development in the outer areas.