Estimating Real-World Emissions of PHEVs in Norway by Combining Laboratory Measurement with User Surveys
Journal article, Peer reviewed
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Original versionWorld Electric Vehicle Journal. 2018, 9 (2), . 10.3390/wevj9020031
The paper presents the results of experimental testing of the exhaust emission and energy consumption of two gasoline plug-in hybrid vehicles in an emission testing laboratory with different drive cycles and drive modes and at summer and winter temperatures. One was a compact vehicle with a type approval electric mode range of 50 km, the other a mid-sized vehicle with an electric mode range of 31 km. Additionally, an online survey of 2065 private plug-in hybrid vehicles (PHEV) owners investigated the usage pattern of the vehicles. Combining the laboratory tests with the user survey results provided an estimate for the reduction of CO2-emission of PHEVs in use in Norway. The main conclusion is that the PHEV is a vehicle type that needs to match well with the use pattern to produce low CO2- and local emissions. The achievable CO2-emission reduction was proportional to the range in electric drive-mode (E-mode), i.e., 50 km range resulted in about 50% reduction.